History and Heritage Management

 

History and Heritage Management

Background of the Program

In its national mission of expanding the horizon of knowledge to larger populace, Haramaya University has made a commendable and great leap ahead since its inception. One of its tangible manifestations of the expansion and massification of higher learning was the opening of the Faculty of Education in1996.Two years later the Department of History was opened under the auspice of the Faculty of Education. Its major objective was the training of qualified secondary school and above history teachers.

Since 1998, the Department has been offering the four year-degree program in History education with Geography as minor. This four years program has been in place up until 2004 .By then the Ministry of education introduced a paradigm shift in teachers’ training with what it came to be known as Teachers’ Education System Overhaul, better known in its acronym-TESO. Accordingly, the department has been running a three years degree program in history education minoring geography.

However, in light of the recent rethinking and scholarly debate on the approaches or the modalities of training new university entrants who are going to be assigned in our faculty, our department has opted to implement the add on approach . Through this approach, the department strongly believes it would train and produce well-qualified historians. To realize the end, the department, by taking the timely opportunity, revisited its existing curriculum and developed a new curriculum.

The interplay of a number of justifications is guarantying the department to commence the new curriculum as of the coming academic year. Some of the justifications realized by the department are:

  1. The Results of the need assessment and feasibility study reports press for an urgent need to revisit the existing history curriculum.

In the national workshop held under the auspice of the National Curriculum Council, with participation of various universities, the existing curriculum was defamed for a number of its defects. By then the following defects were pronounced with especial reference to Ethiopian History:

  1. Content deficiency (Subject matter knowledge) by the graduates
  2. Absence of Course related with  the philosophy and methodological aspects in making research
  3. Unbalanced allocation of credit hours,
  4. Its spatial biases (North Centered)
  5. Its political emphasis at the expense of other aspects of human past
  6. Its chronological approach of course organization and others

The findings reflect that there is a pressing need to train historians with the powerful analytical and inquisitive thinking who have also fervent need to settle the historiographical imbalance among the Ethiopian Peoples. The result also meant the need to produce professionals who can make the knowledge of history a usable past for our society.

Indeed, the department has made a need assessment in 2007 to open a new program of study in non-Teaching stream. To the department’s asset, the findings of the department and the current need assessment results at a national level have many things in common.

  1. The new approach by the Ministry of Education opting the add-on approach will also provide us justification to launch the new program.  From different angles, the new graduates will have a very good ground in their subject matter knowledge there by making them competent in their area of specialization and rectify the historical myths and misunderstandings in Ethiopian history. In addition, the Ministry of Education will benefit a lot by having graduates with good profile in subject matter knowledge. (It will be a double weapon)
  2. The societal need of history and the pressing need to make the knowledge of the human past as usable.

Can we escape from the past? Indeed, we cannot. As a continuous dialogue between the past and the present, contemporary society continuously refer its collective achievements in the past as its charts the road for the future. Failure to understand the past would lead society to unending sea of darkness.

In a country like Ethiopia, there is lack of proper and balanced historical knowledge of all societies. In Ethiopia the knowledge of history is vulgarized and mystified. It is considered to the extent that the knowledge of history has nothing to contribute in the nation building by creating national consensus. One of its major reasons for such kind of misunderstanding lies on the curriculum. The existing history curriculum, especially on Ethiopian history, has a number of defects. To mention some:

  1. The imbalance in temporal and spatial aspects
  2. Its strong emphasis on political aspects at the expense of the other aspects of the human past such as economic, social, environmental, etc
  3. Its due emphasis on narration of factual details failed to equip students with necessary skills of critical inquiry
  4. More importantly, however, the academic context of Ethiopia in teaching history has manifestly failed to consider rethinking the contemporary global context in offering history courses. Because of the nature of the curriculum and its organization, we have been offering history courses more as a body of historical information and narration than an approach to basic knowledge and skills that practically create a link between history and the heritages of the human past. By creating a link between history and cultural and natural heritages of the human past, the knowledge of history can solve the pressing socio economic developments of the country. Therefore, in view of making the human past usable, the department needs to develop a new curriculum.
  5. The Professional diversity and interdisciplinary educational background of the department members helps to run the program smoothly. The department members are graduates of history, archaeology, social anthropology, philosophy, and law. This diversity can enable the department to run the newly proposed program smoothly

Implications of the Findings

In view of the findings, the department designed its new curriculum by making a shift from a   politically toned chronological arrangement into an approach that can create the liberty of discussing the different aspects of the past i.e.  Thematic approach on Ethiopian History courses. We are also informed by the findings that more Ethiopian history courses, methodology courses and practical activities need to be part of the new program. Lastly, as the major objective of the department is to strengthen major area training, there is no need of including minor as part of our program. The impracticality of the minor area course also convinced the department not to incorporate any minor area in our new program of study.

The finding also persuaded the department to integrate heritage courses with history that can create opportunity in enhancing awareness on our rich heritage resources. For this and other strong justifications, that are discussed hereunder, the department proposed its renaming into History and Heritage Management.

Rationale for Designing the New Program

Heritage is the product of Historical processes among society. The theoretical understanding of historical knowledge without the skills of identifying and managing heritage resources cannot entail the change and continuity of the human past. The inclusion of Heritage courses in this program for our graduates provides not only the theoretical knowledge of history but also practical skills of managing heritage resources.

  1. In terms of its nature, as it is true for other disciplines, the knowledge of history is expansive. History is the totality of the human past stretched in such distant past. Currently history is discussing every facets of human activity in the past. The versatile nature of the knowledge of history demands the inclusion of the relics and the fingerprints of the human past. To this end, the integration of heritage courses in this program is the logical conclusion of the expansion of the knowledge of history.
  2. The national education policy demands trained professionals and experts who can create job instead of looking for employment. The entrepreneurial quality of our graduates can be realized if we integrate skill and practice oriented courses. In line with this it is the management of heritage courses that can solve this problem
  3. The socioeconomic importance of the country’s rich heritage resources are not yet exploited the level best. This was partly because the absence of trained professionals who can uncover the socio-economic potentials of heritage resources
  4. The interpretation and presentation of Ethiopian history to date is shrouded by myths, biases, and imbalances in coverage and stereotypes, which are reconstructed from only written documents. The reconstruction and rewriting of our national history calls for an urgent use of alternative sources in addition to the living documents. In this regard, heritages courses  can play a paramount role towards reconstructing a balanced and objective national history where all Ethiopian people’s are fairly represented

Program Objectives

In this curriculum the courses of study are developed and structured in such a way that student will acquire and develop basic knowledge of the historical material in depth, engage in exercise of critical thinking about historical themes and issues and to develop skills of identifying and solving historical problems through methodological research. Therefore, the main objectives of the curriculum includes

  • To train full-fledged researchers committed to the discipline of history and heritage management to tackle the problem of the society using the potentials and possibilities embedded in the profession.
  • To produce skilled personnel and professionals who carry out research in the political, economic, social and cultural history of Ethiopia
  • To produce professionals who are well versed in various aspects of the past, especially of Ethiopia and the horn of Africa (environmental, political, economic, social, ethnographic, dynamics and intricacies in the region).
  • To produce scholars with the tradition of tolerance towards the ethnic and cultural diversity of the country.
  • To create professionals with clear world view and ability to relate their profession with local, regional, national and international dynamics and realities andto create polymath students (candidates) who can give a good knowledge of history  for the benefit of posterity

Professional Profile

Professionals of History and Heritage Management are expected to:

  • Conduct researches in the fields of  History and Heritage Management
  • Teach history in Educational institutions
  • Analyze History and Heritage Management experts in different institutions and at different levels
  • Manage many tasks as experts in the areas of intra and inter-ethnic and intra and inter religious relations
  • Engage in tourism and museum sectors as guides, curators, experts, and managers  at different levels
  • Train and teach History and Heritage Management in higher  and  other institutions

Graduate Profile

Graduates in History and Heritage Management are equipped with good knowledge and skills in the fields of history and cultural studies that enable them:

  1. Undertake scientific research in historical, historiographical and cultural aspects of  Ethiopia and the Horn
  2. Document Heritages  of the peoples of Ethiopia and the Horn at local, national, and regional levels
  3. Manage Heritages  of the peoples of Ethiopia and the Horn at local, national, and regional levels
  4. Advise  or provide consultancy services to governmental and non-governmental organizations and private enterprises on History and Heritage Management issues at local, national, and regional levels
  5. Engage in the tourism and museum sectors as guides, curators, experts, and managers
  6. Serve as History and Heritage Management experts in local, national, regional, and international institutions
  7. Serve as experts in the areas of intra and inter-ethnic and intra and inter religious relations of the region.
  8. Analyze the socio-economic and environmental impact on the well being of heritage resources.
  9. Design mechanisms for preserving historical and cultural heritages of Ethiopia
  10. Create awareness among the peoples of Ethiopia of regarding their history and their cultural values and traditions

Degree Nomenclature

This new Curriculum is an embodiment of the draft curriculum which was prepared earlier by a group of professionals recruited and assigned from different Ethiopian Universities for the task of designing a draft for a new Curriculum for Under Graduate Program following the termination of TDP. Accordingly, the structure of the new program under implementation shows some discernible changes and modifications from the previous one. It first starts with minor alteration made on the Degree Nomenclature whereby it is termed as “Bachelor of Arts Degree in History”. But since 2010/11 with the inclusion of new courses relevant to the students, the graduates in the department began to be awarded with a degree called “Bachelor of Arts Degree in History and Heritage Management” in Amharic  የባችለር አርት ድግሪ በታሪክና ቅርስ አስተዳደር

Program Profile

I. Admission Requirements

Entry to the Bachelor of Arts in History and Heritage Management is available only to those applicants who successfully completed their preparatory education in the field of social sciences and meet the minimum requirement to entry to university set by Ministry of Education.  However, the respective University shall set different entry requirements for enrollment in the continuing education programs.

  1. Graduation Requirement

In order to qualify for graduation, students are required to cover the minimum load of credit points (that is, 180 ECTS) specified for the program. However, our students take 187 ECTS which is from a maximum load of credit points (that is, 190 ECTS) as per specific requirement of respective Universities. And students who successfully complete all courses with a minimum CGPA of 2.00 and with no “F” grade will be legible for graduation.

  1. Duration of study

It will be undertaken for 3 successive years

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND HOTEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

Background

Tourism and Hospitality industry is one of the major pillars for socioeconomic developments, political advancements and maintaining of ecological balance. It is the sector that is serving as the source of income for one-tenth global population.  It is a gear for the transformation in the degree of environmental preservation, women employment, and spread of education, strengthening of social tie and related progressive elements of human developments. Antiquity

Ethiopia, in this regards, is a country that is highly endowed with almost every type of tourism potentials that well preserved inheritances of several millennia old states. The legacies of long term interaction between different religious institutions and multi-ethnic and cultural communities made the country the home countless tangible and intangible cultural heritages. As a country that accepted Judaism and Christianity before Europe and Islam before the wider part of the Middle-East, old aged churches, mosques, writing systems, civilized cities are found in large quantity.

Innumerable natural elements of the country which are the results of prolonged geological process, wide-ranged climatic disparity and the interaction between the living and non-living things, is also the other reality that makes the country one of the most plausible place to spend once holiday in. It is the home of natural scenic environments ranging between 120M below sea level to 4620M above Sea level in altitude; from the very hot and arid Afar/Denakle depression to the very cold tops of Semein Massive. The ever-active volcano of Ertale, the major source of river Nile (i.e. Lake Tana), the greater lakes, and the endemic animals and plant species are the peculiarities of Ethiopia’s natural environment that make Ethiopia the centre of tourism.

The Country is also the host of the head quarter of African Union and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, embassies and legations of great majority of the countries in the world. Tourism has remained the part of Ethiopian government’s plans as one of the major pillars of economic development since. In addition to this, the socio-political and economic situations make Ethiopia a very plausible holiday place. There are about 85 million interactive, hospitable people with more than eighty languages, feeding and wearing styles and cultural performances that are euphoric to be with tourists. Besides, the country is relatively socially and politically stable and secure. Moreover, costs for goods and services in Ethiopia are relatively less.

However the way tourism is developed and the overall benefit the country generates from the sector is extremely less as compared to the aforementioned and other attracting facts.

The development of tourism and hospitality sector is dependent on the system of scientific intertwining between the attractions (tourism potentials) amenities (services rendered for the customers) and accessibilities (infrastructural developments. Effective coexistence between these sectors will lead to achievement of the deemed developmental goals if and only if the industry is run by skilled professionals.

Aware of these facts, department of history and heritage management has gone several steps to launch a program that would produce professional to handle the future careers of the industry. It has made a team of tourism professionals in the department to take the initiative and work hard to launch the program. The team has found it important and made thorough and successful discussions with most concerned bodies in the university and made a baseline survey (need assessment) to analyze the market demand for professionals in the field. The DC of the Department of History and Heritage Management; College of Social Sciences and Humanities dean and AC of the college; Vice President for Academic Affairs; Academic Program Directorate; Head and SC of School of Animal and Range sciences; College of Business and Economics; Department of Management; etc. on the way for ward. Finally, after the agreement and decisions, a group of three lecturers Tourism and Development professionals and additional one lecturer were dispatched to different regions in the country to undertake the assessment with great emphasis on the Eastern Ethiopia. Stakeholder institutions, namely Culture and tourism bureaus at national, regional and zonal levels; hotels (both government owned and private); travel agents and tour operators; parks and museums; and academic institutions providing courses in tourism related areas were taken as target population and data were collected via questionnaire accordingly.

The core results of the need assessment are discussed as follows. The data were gathered from 39 of which 42.3% were cultural and tourism bureaus and the shares of hotels and tour operators, academic institutions and heritage collection areas were 34.6%, 15.4% and 7.7% respectively. With reference to their administrative hierarchy and location, 15.4% of the stakeholders were from the federal administrative cities, 53.8% regional capital and 30.8% zonal capital.

The data were collected from sample institutions located in AA, Dire Dawa, Harari, Oromiya, Amhara and SNNP regional states where as the greater emphasis was given to Eastern Ethiopia. Some of the major institutions that were interviewed include

Ministry of culture and Tourism; Culture and Tourism Bureaus of AA, Dire Dawa, Harari, Oromiya, Amhara and SNNP; Zonal tourism Bureaus of South Gonder, Eastern Gojam, Sidama, Bale, Eastern Shewa, East Hararghe, and West Hararghe; Academic institutions i.e. Addis Ababa University, Adama University, Gonder University, Hawasa University,  Mada Walabu University, Ibex Hotel Management Training College, Lion Ethiopia, Hotel and Tourism training College, Heritage Collection areas i.e. National Mueaum, Hawasa Cultural center, Adaba Dodola Ecotourism site, Bale Mountains National Park, Sherif Museaum, Harari RSCHTB Museaums (2), Arter Ramburt; and sample hotels in Addis Ababa, Adama, Gonder,Bahir Dar, Diredawa, Chiro, Harar, Jigjiga, Hawasa and Bale Robe.

The institutions were requested to reveal how important and urgent launching tourism management training is for their institutions and the country at large. 92.3 % of the respondents responded it is very important and 7.7% important. Large number of the respondents (96.2%) also revealed that it is an urgent issue the rest 3.8% did not respond on it. For the question what they perceive about the level of tourism potentials development in the country 88.5% believed that tourism potentials developed recently to be very less. Whereas the rest 11.5% responded that they think it is developed at medium level.

They were also asked about the numbers of employee’s in their institutions.  The total number of workers ranged from 3 to 2083 of which the number of tourism professionals were between 0%, in many private to 11.5%, in Somali Regional State Tourism Bureau. The stakeholders were also asked to provide informations on areas that emphasis should be given on the opening of the department.  Accordingly, 34.6% of them indicated Tourism Promotion and marketing, 23.1% preferred Tourism Product Development, and 3.8% Attraction Management. 38.5% of the respondents were in favor all the above listed subjects.

On the issue of the name of the department of the department, 73.1% of the stakeholders proposed “Tourism and Hotel Management”, 15.4% “Tourism Development and Management”, 7.7% “Tourism Management”, and 3.8% “Tourism and Development” to be the name of the department to be launched.

In this curriculum, therefore, the results of the aforementioned elements and the degree nomenclature are made to comply with the result of need assessment.  The name of the department was coined by making a thorough discussion by professionals and reviewers during the external review session on the name proposed by the majority of the respondents and decided to be “Tourism Development and Hotel Management”,

Rationale

For a country like Ethiopia, which is endowed with variety of natural and manmade tourist attractions, tourism may pave the road for the development of infrastructure which intern is a pedestal for the maturity of the whole economy as it gives a hand for the expansion of other sectors like agriculture, manufacturing, trade, transportation and others due to tourism’s multidisciplinary nature. However, tourism, a very fast growing economic sector elsewhere in the world, has not yet been developed in Ethiopia and the country is not benefiting from it to the extent it deserves. It is run by archaic instinct and languishing ever since, while other countries are excelling. This is because those countries have realized its potential and developed their capacity by strategic programs.

Ethiopia in general and Eastern Ethiopia in particular have well-off in potential tourism resources but not much benefited from the sector. There is a remarkable growth in the number tourists’ hotels due to different socioeconomic, political and environmental developments both locally and globally. If the tourism industry is geared and developed properly, it can serve as a supplementary (alternative) economic sector besides agriculture.  However there is no any academic institution in Eastern Ethiopia working to produce skilled manpower to run the sector.

That is why Haramaya University College of social sciences and Humanities Department of History and Heritage Management has taken the program justifiable to fill the gap by training tourism professionals and possibly conduct problem solving studies and researches that could catalyze the sector.

The curriculum of the department has been designed to meet the needs of the tourism and hospitality industry and its different components (grasped via need assessment); and to contribute towards the current development policy of the country. The industry’s interdisciplinary nature has been clearly covered throughout the curriculum by incorporating management, accounting, communication skills, general awareness, research methods and other business management subjects. In general the curriculum for degree program in Tourism Development and Hotel Management is developed based on the following facts:

  •  needs-assessment and the clear relevance of the field to the socio-cultural, environmental and economic development of the country;
  • The intention to respond to the changing economic demands of the country and the current lack of professionals in the field of tourism and hotel who would gear the development of this vital and rapidly growing economic sector;
  • Taken specifically because tourism and hotel in Ethiopia need tourism professionals who will work at operational as well as managerial levels;
  • Ethiopia is a growing tourist destination with promising annual growth rates of tourist arrivals (4.2% per annum) that are above the world average growth, the country needs qualified personnel to make use of this opportunity;
  • Ethiopia is the hub of many local, national, regional and international organizations that necessitate for wonderful hotels with qualified personnel,
  • Tourism is expected to be an important source of income, means of poverty alleviation, and a tool to sustain the environment and provide great employment opportunities.

Objectives

General Objective

  • To produce qualified manpower that can effectively contribute in the development of the tourism and hospitality industry in Ethiopia by making use of the vast potential of the country in the sector.

Specific Objectives

  • To produce competent and well qualified graduates to meet the growing demand of trained personnel in the sector,
  • FTo produce graduates who can conduct research in the field and provide advisory services to improve the tourism sector in particular and the service industry in general,
  • To provide appropriate training that helps graduates to acquire the skills required to serve within the context of international standards of service industry.
  • To enhance and cultivate the tourism sector through appropriate training.

Graduate Profile

Graduates of Bachelor of Arts Degree in Tourism Development and Hotel Management will get detail competency (knowledge, attitude and skills) in the area of Tourism Development and Hotel Management. Generally, the degree program provides students with the opportunity to pursue career in Hospitality & Tourism industry and upon completion of the program, graduates will be able to:

  • Plan, develop, manage and market tourism sector services and products
  • Provide operational as well as managerial services in areas such as: hospitality and tourism marketing, destination development & management, travel facilitation, tour guiding & operation, national, regional & local tourism authorities,
  • Work in trade and industry sector as a tourism investment expert and perform public relation tasks in different tourism organizations
  • Deal with key issues in finance, marketing, management and other functions within the tourism industry, in innovative ways
  • Undertake Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) entrepreneurship activity by their own in the tourism sector,
  • Develop and implement an appropriate international, national and regional policies and regulations in the sector,
  • Undertake relevant operational and marketing research and implement the results of  these studies for the advancement of the sector,
  • Provide short and long term trainings in the areas related to  tourism,
  • Provide consultancy services in the tourism sector,
  • Will be able to work in the conservation and development of natural and manmade tourism resources,
  •  Work in travel and tourism industries like Travel agencies, Tour operators, Event management organizations, Airlines, Cruise lines, Cargo operators, Shipping lines and other sectors of the tourism industry.
  • Work in several hotels as general managers, front office supervisors, head of housekeeping division, food and beverage or others sectors of the industry.

Program Profile

Applicants seeking admission to the Tourism Development and Hotel Management program must meet the following admission requirements:

  • Successful completion of preparatory schools in social science stream or comparable level of school education.
  • Passing mark in Ethiopian Universities’ entrance examination or any other comparable examination.
  • Diploma in related fields and minimum of two years experience, preferably in tourism and hotel related areas.
  • Sponsorship or personal financial status declaration in case of adult and/or foreign students is needed.

Graduation Requirements

A student who completes the three years of study successfully taking all the required courses and the minimum number of credit hours of 112 or 186 ECTs with a minimum CGPA of 2.00 will be awarded BA degree in Tourism Development and Hotel Management. No ‘F’, ‘I’ and ‘NG’ grade in any course and Compliance with the regulation of the University is accepted.

Degree Nomenclature

The Degree is named as:

In English: -“Bachelor of Arts Degree in Tourism Development and Hotel Management”

በአማርኛ:-“የአርU {sዲግሪ በቱሪዝም ልማት እና ሆቴል ሥራ አመራር”

Quality Assurance

The quality of the program is maintained by the following measures:

–          Adopt good planning,

–          monitoring and evaluation of activities and academic programs

–          Respecting and executing the academic calendar

–          Integrity and transparency in checking answer sheets

–          Adherence to academic norms in deciding the grades

–          Remedial measures for academically weak students

–          Continuous updating and expanding teaching resources developing staff members

–          Encouraging the use of Information and Communication Technology

–          Encouraging students to comply with policies and regulations of the university, as published in the college legislation and students guidebook of the office of the Registrar.

–          Establishing different committees working for assuring quality.

Monitor its program through getting feedback from  different stakeholders