Department of Afan Oromo, Literatures and communication

 

Afan Oromo, Literatures and communication

Background of the program

The overall development of a language is determined by a context in which it is used. For instance, languages like English and French have developed and they have rich literature because of political, economic and socio-cultural reasons they are used in. In this connection, both languages are widely spoken and used even as official languages in many countries of the world.

To ensure the issue mentioned above, it was a general agenda of a great deal of ethno-linguistics communities in the world especially after the post-independence.   In many countries, questions related to language rights have become increasingly prominent and are often raised in the context of more general human rights. Linguists have become involved in this area via diverse pathways; e.g., maintaining endangered languages, language preservation and revitalization; language planning; forensic linguistics; bilingual education and other school-centered language issues; action research with urban linguistic minorities; work with indigenous peoples, including land claims; refugee and asylum issues, and more.

Beside the efforts by linguists and other bodies, international organization such as UNESCO (especially in 1980’s and 1990’s), started preserving and promoting languages of the indigenous people. This action put many languages of the world to be revitalized and many international movements for linguistic human rights were raised. This has also created favorable conditions for many languages of the world to be developed from spoken to written form, of which Ethiopia is also part and parcel of this condition.

Afan Oromo, as a language of wider communication in Ethiopia, could not get the opportunity to be used as a written language until Abba Gammachis, the prominent Oromo, translated the Bible into Afan Oromo in 1880’s. Moreover, Abba Gammachis made efforts to use Afan Oromo as a medium of instruction. However, this was short lived because the Ethiopian ruling regime of that time banned the use of the language in schools.

Again when Italians invaded Ethiopia in 1935, they used Afan Oromo in radio broadcast to disseminate their propaganda. However, when the Italians were defeated and left the country, the use of the language was banned once again. Moreover, in spite of the persistent struggle of different individuals such as Sheikh BakriSaphalo (1941-1952), who developed his own script to write in Afan Oromo, the language could not be used for writing purposes for long age.

After the downfall of Haile Sellasie’s regime, the Oromo elites came up with the timely question of using Afan Oromo in mass media and as a medium of instruction. As a result, the language started to be used in news broadcast on the radio for disseminating the existing government’s ideology. Soon after, the weekly newspaper, Barisa,was publishedin Afan Oromo in 1967 E.C. These accomplishments, indeed, laid a firm foundation for the language to be used as a written language in Ethiopia. In addition to these measures, in 1970’s E.C. different books were printed in Afan Oromo for literacy campaigns to be undertaken.  Although the condition was conducive to continue literacy program in the language, the efforts made were not satisfactory.

Ever since the change of government in May 1991, due recognition has been given to the languages of Ethiopian nations and nationalities. The formulation of the New Education and Training Policy of 1994 brought about the use of mother tongues in schools. Using the nations and nationalities languages in different socio-cultural spheres has continued to encourage the language speakers of Ethiopia to use and promote their mother tongues. Similarly, Afan Oromo has had the chance to be used as a medium of instruction in primary schools and as an official language of Oromia regional state. This opportunity has also made the language to be taught as a subject in Oromia high schools. Moreover, it has become a medium of instruction in teachers’ training institutes and has been used as a medium of instruction in colleges in the region. Thus, having qualified personnel in Afan Oromo has become an urgent need of the region. Therefore, the Government of Oromia Regional State has given due attention to promote Afan Oromo to BED degree level in order to meet this urgent demand for qualified professionals in Afan Oromo. Within not more than five years, programs were started at different Universities in Afan Oromo BA, MED, and MA.  Furthermore, it has also recently been decided to offer Afan Oromo as Post Graduate Program (PHD) in Addis Ababa University.

Concomitantly, the program was launched at Haramaya University in the year 2003/04 G.C. (1996 E.C.).  Since then, the Department has been offering BEd Degree in Afan Oromo and literature in both regular and summer in-service programs till the new BA program was commenced in 2008/9 G.C.

Vision

In line with the vision of Haramaya University, department of Afan Oromo, literature and Communication aspires to be the centre of excellence to offer quality higher education and research with the university community devoted to produce well-trained, competent, and accountable professionals who are accountable to the development of the nations.

Mission

The mission of the programs in Afan Oromo, Literature and Communication seeks to educate, to train and to undertake research and to prepare scholars/professionals who are capable of carrying out research on/in Afan Oromo, literatures, folklore and others in order to disseminate the knowledge embedded in Oromo sociolinguistic features and literature to researchers and others who need to study Afan Oromo, Oromo cultures and literature.

Programs underthe Department (Both Post & Undergraduate)
  • Regular undergraduate
  • Summer undergraduate
  • Continuing undergraduate
  • Postgraduate : Only teaching (summer)
  • Regular and non-regular postgraduate with three streams( Afan Oromo linguistics, Afan Oromo literature and Afan Oromo and Literature teaching)
ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS
A. (Regular Under graduate)

The Afan Oromo and Literature department needs students who:

  •  would successfully complete the preparatory program;
  • have fitting result in the higher education entrance examination;
  • have good a command of Afan Oromo;
  • have an interest in studying the Oromo language and culture in general;
  • Could suit the general admission requirements of the University.
B.      (Under graduatesummer program)

The Afan Oromo and Literature department needs students who:

  • Would successfully complete the preparatory program;
  • Have fitting result in the higher education entrance examination;
  • Have good a command of Afan Oromo;
  • Have an interest in studying the Oromo language and culture in general;
  • Could suit the general admission requirements of the university.
C.     (Under graduatecontinuing program)

The Afan Oromo, Literature and Communication department needs students who:

  • Would successfully complete the preparatory program;
  • Have fitting result in the higher education entrance examination;
  • Have good a command of Afan Oromo;
  • Have an interest in studying the Afan Oromo and culture in general;
  • Could suit the general admission requirements of the university.
D.    (Postgraduate summer program)

In addition to the requirements of the School of Graduate Study at the Haramaya University, admission to Afan Oromo and Literature Teaching in Masters Program shall be open to those applicants who:

  • have completed undergraduate studies in Ethiopian as well as foreign languages and literature or in any other field of humanities;
  • Successfully pass entrance examination.
  • have adequate knowledge of Afan Oromo
  • have an interest in studying Afan Oromo  and culture in general
GRADUATE REQUIREMENT
A. (Regular Under graduate)

The graduates must fulfill the following requirements:

  • A cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of 2.00.
  • A major GPA of 2.00
  • Completion of a total of 180 ECTS
  • No “F” grade.
  • A senior essay write-up as a partial fulfillment for the requirement of BA degree.
  • Minimum ‘C’ grade in senior essay(SRP) and CBTP
B.     (Under graduate summer program)

The graduates must fulfill the following requirements:

  • A cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of 2.00.
  • A major GPA of 2.00
  • Completion of a total of 180 ECTS
  • No “F” grade.
  • A senior essay write-up as a partial fulfillment for the requirement of BA degree.

Minimum ‘C’ grade in senior essay (SRP) and CBTP

B. (Under graduate Continuing program)

The following points need to be included as academic requirements for Afan Oromo graduates:

The graduates must fulfill the following requirements:

  • A cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of 2.00.
  • A major GPA of 2.00
  • Completion of a total credit hour of 100.
  • No “F” grade.
  • A senior essay write-up as a partial fulfillment for the requirement of BA degree.
D.    (Postgraduate summer program)

In accordance with the graduation requirements of the SGS of Haramaya University in general and the College of Social Sciences and Humanities in particular, graduation with Master of Arts Degree in Afan Oromo and Literature Teaching requires:

  • successful completion of a minimum of 29 credit hours for course work and 6 credit hours of thesis work;
  • A minimum CGPA of 3.00 for course work and a minimum grade of ‘satisfactory’ for thesis work.
Graduate profile
A. (Regular Under graduate)

Afan Oromo and Literature graduates are expected to fulfill the knowledge and skills based language and language related faculties. Therefore, they are expected to:

  1. Write letters, memos, reports, minutes, biographies, autobiography and varies things.
  1. Comprehend, review, analyze, and interpret different Afan Oromo texts.
  2. Translate oral and written texts from source language to target language and vice versa.
  3. Investigate and study the concept and origin of language and linguistics.
  4. Transcribe and annotate Afan Oromo words and also prepare, edit and disseminate Oromo grammar texts.
  5. Scrutinize, collect, and organize Oromo Literature.
  6. Analyze, interpret and evaluate Oromo prose fictions.
  7. Write, edit, evaluate, act and direct verse and drama.
  8. a)  Participate on language planning and standardization

b) Compile and edit dictionaries

c) Work in multicultural environment

  1. Collect,  classify, document  and analyze Oromo folklore  genres
  2. Criticize Oromo literary texts.
  3. Conduct and present researches.
  4. a) Collect, write, edit and report news for broad cast and print media.

b) Create good rapport between public and organizations.

  1. Write and present varies imaginative work.
B.     (Under graduate summer program)

Afan Oromo and Literature graduates are expected to fulfill the knowledge and skills based language and language related faculties. Therefore, they are expected to:

  1. Write letters, memos, reports, minutes, biographies, autobiography and varies things.
  1. Comprehend, review, analyze, and interpret different Afan Oromo texts.
  2. Translate oral and written texts from source language to target language and vice versa.
  3. Investigate and study the concept and origin of language and linguistics.
  4. Transcribe and annotate Afan Oromo words and also prepare, edit and disseminate Oromo grammar texts.
  5. Scrutinize, collect, and organize Oromo Literature.
  6. Analyze, interpret and evaluate Oromo prose fictions.
  7. Write, edit, evaluate, act and direct verse and drama.
  8. a)  Participate on language planning and standardization

b) Compile and edit dictionaries

c) Work in multicultural environment

  1. Collect,  classify, document  and analyze Oromo folklore  genres
  2. Criticize Oromo literary texts.
  3. Conduct and present researches.
  4. a) Collect, write, edit and report news for broad cast and print media.

b) Create good rapport between public and organizations.

Write and present varies imaginative work.

C. (Under graduate Continuing program)

Afan Oromo, Literature and Communication graduates are expected to fulfill the knowledge and skills based language and language related faculties. Therefore, they are expected to:

  1. Write letters, memos, reports, minutes, biographies, autobiography and varies things.
  1. Comprehend, review, analyze, and interpret different Afan Oromo texts.
  2. Translate oral and written texts from source language to target language and vice versa.
  3. Investigate and study the concept and origin of language and linguistics.
  4. Transcribe and annotate Afan Oromo words and also prepare, edit and disseminate Oromo grammar texts.
  5. Scrutinize, collect, and organize Oromo Literature.
  6. Analyze, interpret and evaluate Oromo prose fictions.
  7. Write, edit, evaluate, act and direct verse and drama.
  8. a)  Participate on language planning and standardization

b) Compile and edit dictionaries

c) Work in multicultural environment

  1. Collect,  classify, document  and analyze Oromo folklore  genres
  2. Criticize Oromo literary texts.
  3. Conduct and present researches.
  4. a) Collect, write, edit and report news for broad cast and print media.

b) Create good rapport between public and organizations.

  1. Write and present varies imaginative work.
D.    (Postgraduate summer program)

After the completion of the program, the graduates of Afan Oromo and Literature Teaching are expected to have knowledge and skills on language and language teaching methodology. Therefore, they are expected to:

  • Teach Afan Oromo and literature in preparatory schools;
  • Train Afan Oromo and literature teachers in preparatory, Colleges and Universities;
  • Design curricula and syllabi; prepare Afan Oromo teaching materials and textbooks for primary, secondary and tertiary levels.
  • Provide guidance and consultancy services in their field of specialization to regional as well as national educational institutions and culture Bureau;
  • Conduct research on problems and issues pertaining to language teaching;
  • Assist efforts geared towards the development of bilingual and multicultural education in the country;
  • Engage in social and cultural activities related with language and literature.